Error message

  • Deprecated function: Unparenthesized `a ? b : c ? d : e` is deprecated. Use either `(a ? b : c) ? d : e` or `a ? b : (c ? d : e)` in include_once() (line 1439 of /home/science2016/public_html/includes/
  • Deprecated function: Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated in include_once() (line 3557 of /home/science2016/public_html/includes/

Solvent-free Microwave Extraction as the Useful Tool for Extraction of Edible Essential Oils

Heri Kusuma, Ditta Putri, Intan Dewi and Mahfud Mahfud
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, 60111, Surabaya, Indonesia;;
PDF icon full_text.pdf278.94 KB
Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is proposed as a method for “green” extraction of edible essential oils extensively used in the fragrance, flavour, and pharmaceutical industries and also in aromatherapy. It is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was extracted with SFME at atmospheric pressure and 373 K for 30 min. The extracted compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by simple decantation, identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation (HD) of basil was performed with 400 ml of water for 4.5 h for comparison of the results with those provided by the proposed method. SFME method offers important advantages over HD, viz. shorter extraction times (30 min vs. 4.5 h); better yields (0.13 % vs. 0.11 %); environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing HD than that required for rapid SFME), cleaner features (as no residue generation and no water or solvent used); and provides a more valuable essential oil. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of edible essential oils from aromatic plants used in aromatherapy and food industry.

[1] Pitojo S.: Basil and Selasih (in Bahasa Indonesia). Trubus Agriwidya, Ungaran 1996.

[2] Nurcahyanti A., Dewi L. and Timotius K.: Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 2011, 22, 1.

[3] Meyer B., Ferrigni N., Putnam J. et al.: J. Med. Plant Res., 1982, 45, 31.

[4] Sudarsono D., Wahyuono S., Donatus I. and Purnomo: Herbs II (research, traits, and its use) (in Bahasa Indonesia). Pusat Studi Obat Tradisional Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 2002.

[5] Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia: Indonesia Medical Materia Volume VI (in Bahasa Indonesia). Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 1995.

[6] Rahman S., Islam R., Kamruzzaman M., Alam K. and Jamal A.: Am. J. Drug Discov. Develop., 2011, 1, 1.

[7] Reverchon E.: J. Supercrit. Fluids, 1997, 10, 1.

[8] Lucchesi M., Chemat F. and Smadja J.: J. Chromatogr. A, 2004, 1043, 323.

[9] Adams R.: Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscope. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL 1995.

[10] Arctander S.: Perfume and Flavor Chemicals. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL 1994.

[11] Ferhat M., Meklati B., Smadja J. and Chemat F.: J. Chromatogr. A, 2006, 1112, 121.

[12] Li Y., Fabiano-Tixier A., Abert Vian M. and Chemat F.: Trends Anal. Chem., 2013, 47, 1.

[13] Filly A., Fernandez X., Minuti M. et al.: Food Chem., 2014, 150, 193.