Error message

  • Deprecated function: Unparenthesized `a ? b : c ? d : e` is deprecated. Use either `(a ? b : c) ? d : e` or `a ? b : (c ? d : e)` in include_once() (line 1439 of /home/science2016/public_html/includes/
  • Deprecated function: Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated in include_once() (line 3557 of /home/science2016/public_html/includes/

Identification and Quantification of the Organic Matter in the Fouling Industrial of Wet Phosphoric Acid Process

Yaktine Elyamani1, Mohamed EL Guendouzi1
1 Laboratory of Physical-Chemistry, Materials & Catalysis, University Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculty of Sciences Ben M’sik, Casablanca, Morocco
PDF icon full_text.pdf1.01 MB
The organic matter of rock phosphate has been the subject of numerous studies. The valuation and resolu-tion of some problems, such as fouling, encountered in the industrial production of phosphoric acid are of great interest, and enable better production yields of phosphoric acid. The solid deposits formed in the production of wet process phosphoric acid were characterized and revealed the malladrite, gypsum, trace metals, and the presence of organic matter. The identification of the organic matter was carried out in the fouling samples using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The quantitative determination of the total organic matter content of the fouling samples was performed using the Walkley-Black and calcination methods. The knowledge of the organic matter in the fouling layers allows a better understanding of phenomena in processes.

[1] Phosphoric Acid. Fertiliser Science and Technology Se-ries;Slack, A.V. (Ed.); Marcel Dekker: New York,1968.

[2] Van der Sluis,S. A Clean Technology of Phosphoric Acid Process. Proceedings, Fertiliser Society. Delft University Press:Delft, The Netherlands,1987.

[3] Ramteke, L.P., Sahayam, A.C., Ghosh, A., Rambabu, U., Reddy, M.R.P., Popat, K.M., Rebary, B., Kubavat, D., Marathe, K.V., Ghosh, P.K.Study of Fluoride Content in Some Commercial Phosphate Fertilizers.J. Fluor. Chem. 2018, 210, 149-155.

[4] Benalioulhaj, S. Organic Geochemistry Compared of Sets of Phosphatic Basin of Oulad Abdounand Oil Shales of the Timahdit Basin (Morocco). Implications in the Phosphatogenesis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Orleans, France,1989.

[5] Meunier-Christmann, C.; Lucas, J.; Albrecht,P. Organic Geochemistry of Moroccan Phosphorites and Bituminous Shales. A Contribution to the Problem of Phosphogenesis.Sciences Géologiques, bulletins et mémoires1989, 42, 205-222.

[6] Belayouni, H.; Slansky, M.; Trichet, J.A.A Study of the Organic Matter in Tunisian Phosphates Series: Relevance to Phosphorite Genesis in the Gafsa Basin (Tunisia). Org. Geochem. 1990, 15, 47-72.

[7] De Fusco, L.; Boucquey, A.; Blondeau, J.;Jeanmart, H.;Contino, F.Fouling Propensity of High-Phosphorus Solid Fuels: Predictive Criteria and Ash Deposits Characterisation of Sunflower Hulls With P/Ca-Additives in a Drop Tube Furnace.Fuel 2016, 170, 16-26.

[8] Azaroual, M.; Kervevan, C.; Lassin, A.;André, L.;Amalhay, M.;Khamar, L.;El Guendouzi, M.Thermo-kinetic and Physico-Chemical Modeling of Processes Generating Scaling Problems in Phosphoric Acid and Fertilizers Production Industries.Procedia Engineering2012, 46, 68-75.

[9] Khamar, L.; EL Guendouzi, M.; Amalhay M.;El Alaoui, M.A.;Rifai, A.;Faridi, J.; Azaroual, M.Evolution of Soluble Impuri-ties Concentrations in Industrial Phosphoric Acid During the Operations of Desupersaturation.Procedia Engineering 2014, 83, 243-249.

[10] Bustamante, M.A.; Ceglie, F.G.; Aly,A.; Mihreteab, H.T.; Ciaccia, C.;Tittarelli, F.Phosphorus Availability from Rock Phos-phate: Combined Effect of Green Waste Composting and Sulfur Addition. J. Environ. Manage.2016, 182, 557-563.

[11] Ziyad, M.; Khaddor, M.; Halim, M.Non-Isothermal Retorting of Rock Phosphate Containing Organic Matter.Fuel1993, 72, 655-660.

[12] Khaddor, M.; Ziyad, Halim, M.;Joffre, J., Amblès, A. Characterization of Soluble Organic Matter from Youssoufia Rock Phosphate.Fuel1997, 76, 1395-1400.

[13] Aouad, A.; Benchanâa, M.; Mokhlisse, A.; Arafan, A.Study of Thermal Behaviour of Organic Matter from Natural Phosphates (Youssoufia - Morocco).J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2002, 70, 593-603.

[14] El Asri, S.; Laghzizil, A.; Alaoui, A.;Saoiabi, A.; M'Hamdi, R.; El Abbassi, K.; Hakam, A. Structure and Thermal Behaviors of Moroccan Phosphate Rock (Bengurir).J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2009, 95, 15-19.

[15] Gogenko, A.L.; Anipko,O.B.; Kapustenko P.A.; Arsenye-va,O.P.Accounting for Fouling in Plate Heat Exchanger Design. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2007,12, 207-213.

[16] Behbahani, R.M.;Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Jamialahmadi, M.Investigation of Scale Formation in Heat Exchangers of Phos-phoric Acid Evaporator Plants.Can. J. Chem. Eng. 2008, 84, 189-197.

[17] Kapustenko, P.; Boldyryev, S.; Arsenyeva, O.;Khavin, G.The Use of Plate Heat Exchangers to Improve Energy Efficiency in Phosphoric Acid Production. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 951-958.

[18] ELyamani, Y.; EL Guendouzi, M.; Elmchaouri, A. Chemical Properties and Characterization of the Formed Fouling in Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Production. InProceeding of Congrès International de l'Industrie Environnement et la Santé; AMSTES (Ed.); Morocco, 2020; p 29.

[19] ELyamani, Y.; Skafi, M.; EL Guendouzi, M. Malladrite form of Hexafluorosilicate Salts in Wet Phosphoric Acid Processes: Solubility and Characterization in Acidic Aqueous Solutions at T= 80°C, 4th Int. Symphos, Mohammed VI University, Benguerir Morocco, 8-10 may 2017.

[20] Norme afnor NFX 31-103. Détermination du pH dans l'eau, Paris 1988.

[21] Springer, U.; Klee, J.Prüfung der Leistungsfähigkeit von einigen wichtigeren Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Kohlenstoffs mittels Chromschwefelsäure sowie Vorschlag einer neuen Schnell-methode.J. Plant. Nutr. Soil Sci.1954, 64, 1-26.

[22] Walkley, A.; Black, I.A.An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter, and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method.Soil Sci. 1934, 37, 29-38.

[23] Badachhape, R.B.; Hunter, G.; McCory, L.D.;Margrave, J.L.Infrared Absorption Spectra of Inorganic Solids. IV. Hexafluo-rosilicates. Raman Spectra of Aqueous SiF62-.Inorg. Chem. 1966, 5, 929-931.

[24] Välbe, R.; Mäeorg, U.; Lõhmus, A.;Reedo, V.;Koel, M.;Krumme, A.;Kessler, V.;Hoop, A.;Romanov, A.E.A Novel Route of Synthesis of Sodium Hexafluorosilicate Two Component Cluster Crystals Using BF4−Containing Ionic Liquids J. Cryst. Growth 2012, 361, 51-56.

[25] Bensted, J.; Prakash,S. Investigation of the Calcium Sulphate-Water System by Infrared Spectroscopy.Nature1968, 219, 60-61.

[26] Seidl, V.; Knop, O.; Falk, M.Infrared Studies of Water in Crystalline Hydrates: Gypsum, CaSO4•2H2O.Can. J. Chem. 1969, 47, 1361-1368.

[27] Hass, M.; Sutherland,G.B.B.M. The Infra-Red Spectrum and Crystal Structure of Gypsum. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1956, 236, 427 445.

[28] Shvedov, V.P.; Orlov, Yu.F.; Shevyakov, A. M.Spectra of Phosphate Esters in the 900-1400 cm−1Region. J. Appl. Spectrosc. 1965, 2, 36-38.

[29] Coates, J. Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Ap-proach. In Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry,Coates, Consult-ing;Meyers R.A. (Ed.); Coates Consulting: Newtown, USA, 2006.

[30] Bellamy, L.J.; Beecher, E.The Infra-Red Spectra of Organo-Phosphorus Compounds. Part II. Esters, Acids, and Amines.J. Chem. Soc. 1952, 315, 1701-1706.

[31] Bellamy, L.J.; Beecher, E.The Infra-Red Spectra of Some Organo-Phosphorus Esters.J. Chem. Soc. 1952, 91, 475-483.

[32] Berenblut, B.J.; Dawson, P.; Wilkinson,G.R. The Raman Spectrum of Gypsum.Spectrochimica Acta1971, 27, 1849-1863.

[33] Krishnamurthy, N.; Soots, V.Raman Spectrum of Gyp-sum.Can. J. Phys. 1971, 49, 885-896.

[34] Lin-Vien, D.; Colthup, N.B.; Fateley, W.G.;Grasselli, J.G.The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Frequencies of Organic Molecules; Academic Press, Inc:Boston, 1991.

[35] Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Benítez, J.J.; Domínguez, E.;Bayer, I.S.; Cingolani, R.; Athanassiou, A.; Heredia, A.Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Features of Plant Cuticles: A Review.Front. Plant Sci. 2014, 5, 1-14.

[36] Amblès, A.; Jacquesy, J.C.; Jambu, P.; Joffre, J.;Maggi-Churin, R.Polar Lipid Fraction in Soil: A Kerogen-Like Matter.Org. Geochem.1991, 17, 341-349.

[37] Norme afnor NF ISO 11465-Classification index: X31-102. Paris, France 1994.