Alkali synthesis of fatty acid butyl and ethyl esters and comparative bench motor testing of blended fuels on their basis

Serhiy Konovalov1, Liubov Patrylak1, Stepan Zubenko1, Mykhaylo Okhrimenko1, Angela Yakovenko1, Anton Levterov2, Andriy Avramenko2
Affiliation: 
1 V.P. Kukhar Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 1, Murmanska St., 02094 Kyiv, Ukraine 2 A.M. Pydgorny Institute of Engineering Problems of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 2/10, Pozharsky St., 61046 Kharkiv, Ukraine konovalovserhiy@gmail.com
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.23939/chcht15.01.105
AttachmentSize
PDF icon full_text.pdf1.05 MB
Abstract: 
Alkaline transesterification of sunflower oil by n-butanol and ethanol on alkoxide-containing dried solutions of potassium hydroxide has been carried out. Complex character of spontaneous dividing of butanolysis products, accompanying with formation of three different species of glycerol layers, was observed. One of the later was found to be high-alkaline pure glycerol. Bench motor testing of biodiesel/diesel blends demonstrated slightly better power performance of butyl esters comparing with ethyl esters and regular decrease of harmful emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, CH) while increasing biodiesel fraction in mixture.
References: 

[1] Knothe G., Krahl J., vanGerpen J. (Eds.): The Biodiesel Handbook, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Urbana, Illinois 2010.
[2] Luque R., Melero J. (Eds): Advances in Biodiesel Production. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge 2012.
[3] Atabani A., Silitonga A., Badruddin I. et al.: Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2012, 16, 2070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.003
[4] Luque R., Ki Lin K., Wilson K. (Eds.): Handbook of Biofuels Production, Processes and Technologies, 2nd edn. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge 2016.
[5] BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2018. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/energy-economics/stat...
[6] Sanli H., Canakci M.: Energy Fuels, 2008, 22, 2713. https://doi.org/ef700720w
[7] Hájek M., Skopal F., Vávra A. et al.: J. Clean. Prod., 2017, 155, 28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.007
[8] Sharma Y., Singh B., Corstad J. et al.: Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref., 2011, 5, 69. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.253
[9] Borges M., Diaz L.: Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2012, 16, 2839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.071
[10] Kuzminska M., Kovalchuk T., Backov R.: J. Catal., 2014, 320, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2014.09.016
[11] Sánchez M., Navas M., José Ruggera J. et al.: Energy, 2014, 73,661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.06.067
[12] Jindapon W., Kuchonthara P., Ngamcharussrivichai C.: Fuel Process. Technol., 2016, 148, 67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.031
[13] Wang Y., Chen B.: Catal. Today, 2016, 278, 335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.031
[14] Srinivas D., Satyarthi J.: Indian. J. Chem. Sect. A., 2012, 51A, 174.
[15] Shahid E., Jamal Y.: Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2011, 15, 4732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.079
[16] Najafpour G. (Ed.): Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015.
[17] Tigunova A., Shulga M., Blume Y.: Cytol. Genet, 2013, 47, 366. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0095452713060042
[18]StamenkovićO., Veličković A., Veljković V.:Fuel, 2011, 90, 3141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.049
[19] LiQ., XuJ., DuW. et al.: Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2013, 25, 742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.043
[20] Brunschwig C., Moussavou W., Blin J.: Progr. EnergyComb. Sci., 2012, 38, 283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2011.11.001
[21] Bodachivskyi Iu., Pop G., Zheleznyi L.: Chem. Chem. Tech., 2017, 11, 365. https://doi.org/10.23939/chcht11.03.365
[22] Nimcevic D., Puntigam R., Wörgetter M., Gapes J.: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2000, 77, 275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0045-1
[23] Freedman B., Butterfield R., Pryde E.: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1986, 63, 1375. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02679606
[24] Bouaid A., El boulifi N., Hahati K. et al.: Chem. Eng. J., 2014, 238, 234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.10.022
[25] Lang X., Dalai A., Bakhshi N. et al.: Bioresour. Technol., 2001, 80, 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00051-7
[26] Clark S., Wagner L., Schrock M. et al.: J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc, 1984, 61, 1632. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02541648
[27] Canakci M., Erdil A., Arcaklioglu E.: Appl. Energ., 2006, 83, 594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2005.05.003
[28] Sharon H., Karuppasamy K., Soban Kumar D.: Renew. Energ., 2012, 47, 160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.04.032
[29] Patrylak L., Patrylak K., Okhrimenko M. et al.: Chem. Chem. Tech., 2015, 9, 363. https://doi.org/10.23939/chcht09.03.383
[30] Patrylak L., Patrylak K., Okhrimenko M. et al.: Fuel, 2013, 113, 650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.06.020
[31] Bozbas K.: Renew. Sust. Energ. Rew., 2008, 12, 542.
[32] Sze C., Whinihan J., Olson B. et al.: SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4040, 2007. https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-4040.
[33] Makareviciene V., Janulis P.: Renew. Energ., 2003, 28, 2395. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(03)00142-3
[34] Peterson C., Reece D.: SAE Technical Paper 961114, 1996. https://doi.org/10.4271/961114
[35] Zubenko S.,Konovalov S., Patrylak L.: Catalysis and Petrochemistry, 2017, 26, 36.
[36] Ramírez-Verduzco L., García-Flores B., Rodríguez-Rodríguez J. et al.: Fuel, 2011, 90, 1751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.12.032
[37] ASTM D 240:2017. American National Standard. Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter.
[38] Patrylak L., Zubenko S., Konovalov S.: Voprosy Khimii i Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii, 2018, 5, 125.
[39] Homana T., Shahbazb K., Farid M.: Sep. Puriph. Technol, 2017, 174, 570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2016.10.036
[40] Pradhan S., Shen J., Emami S. et al.: J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2017, 46, 266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.10.038
[41] Ramírez-Verduzco L.F., Rodríguez-Rodríguez J., Jaramillo-Jacob A.: Fuel, 2012, 91, 102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.070
[42] Anastopoulos G., Zannikou Y., Stournas S. et al.: Energies, 2009, 2, 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/en20200362
[43] Najafi B., Abbasi Fakhr M., Jamali S.: Tarım MakinalarıBilimi Dergisi, 2011, 7, 361.
[44] Demirbas A.: Fuel, 2008, 87, 1743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.08.007
[45] EN 14214:2008. Europeanstandard. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods.
[46] http://online.budstandart.com/ua/catalog/doc-page?id_doc=64384
[47] http://shop.uas.org.ua/ua/katalog-normativnih-dokumentiv/75-nafta-y-sumi...
[48] ASTMD6751:2018. American National Standard. Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
[49] Hamasaki K, Kinoshita E, Tajima S. et al.: The 5th Int. Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, 2001, 410.